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james marks
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Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 13:22

Unit 10 Safeguarding in Health and Social
Care


**

Uncategorized
Unit
10: Safeguarding in Health and
Social Care
Unit code: L/601/1600
QCF level: 4
Credit
value: 15

• Aim
The
aim of this unit is to enable learners to develop an understanding of
the
factors of abuse, and study the working practices and strategies to reduce and
prevent its
occurrence.
• Unit abstract
The
unit enables learners to understand the different types of abuse that can
occur
within the community. Learners will study the signs of abuse and factors that
can contribute towards
individuals being vulnerable. This will be followed by
identifying legislation and policies that are in place
and how professionals
work within the guidelines and professional standards to safeguard both
practitioners
and users of health and social care services.
Learners
will consider the multi-agency approach and look at
the strategies that are in
place for all health and social care professionals to work together to
minimise
occurrences of abuse in health and social care contexts. Finally learners will
consider the
effectiveness of these working practices and strategies.
• Learning outcomes
On successful completion of
this unit a
learner will:
1
Understand
the factors that contribute to the incidence of abuse and
harm to self and
others
2 Understand
current legislation, policy and professional involvement
regarding abuse in
health and social care contexts
3
Understand working practice and strategies
used
to minimise abuse in health and social care contexts.



BH023333 – Edexcel
BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher
Nationals specification in Health and Social Care
– 45
Issue 1 – May 2010 ©
Edexcel Limited
2010



UNIT 10: SAFEGUARDING INHEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE


1
Understand the factors that
contribute
to the incidence of abuse and harm to self and others
Different types of
abuse:
physical,
emotional, sexual, neglect, financial Different types of self-harm:
self-inflicted wounds, drugs and
alcohol
Signs of abuse and self-harm:
inappropriate bruising, burns, scalding, malnourishment, low
self-esteem,
emotional withdrawal, neglect, other risk factors
Individuals
vulnerable to abuse: children,
young people, people with
learning disabilities, people with mental health issues, elderly people,
people
with dementia
Individual
factors: self-esteem, identity, gender, previous abuse,
relationships, drug and
alcohol abuse, type of family background, mental
health issues, psychological basis of abuse
Contexts
and
relationships where abuse may occur: home, community,
residential care, institutional care, relationships
involving power,
caring relationships, within the family, domestic violence
Social factors:
health,
housing, education, poverty, social exclusion and disadvantage, networks
of
support
Cultural
factors:
ethnicity, discrimination, religion
2 Understand
current legislation,
policy and professional involvement regarding abuse in
health and social care contexts
Legislation and
policy initiatives:
national, regional and local policies; professional standards and
guidance as
appropriate; individual rights; Fraser guidelines
Range
of professionals: range of professionals from health
and
social care including social workers, social service staff, National
Society for the Prevention of
Cruelty to Children (NSPCC), health professionals
3
Understand working practice and
strategies used to
minimise abuse in health and social care contexts
Working
practices: written and oral communication, use of
ICT in sharing
information between professionals, anti-oppressive practice,
anti-discriminatory practice,
thresholds, risk factors, risk predictions, framework
of assessment, identifying children in
need
Strategies:
working in partnership with users of health and social care services,
between
professionals and within organisations, decision-making processes and
forums, safeguarding children
boards, the ‘at risk' register, area child
protection committee, organisational policies and
training



46 BH023333
– Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health
and
Social Care

Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010



UNIT 10: SAFEGUARDING
INHEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE


Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcomes Assessment
criteria
for pass
On successful
completion of The learner can:
this unit a
learner
will:

LO1 Understand the
factors that 1.1 explain why particular individuals
and
groups may be
contribute to the incidence vulnerable to abuse and/or harm to
self and others
of abuse
and harm to self 1.2 review risk factors which may lead
to incidence of abuse
and others
and/or
harm to self and others

1.3 analyse the impact of social and
cultural factors on
different
types of abuse and/or harm
to self and others

LO2 Understand
current 2.1 analyse the strengths
and weaknesses
in current
legislation, policy and legislation and policy relating to
those vulnerable
to
professional involvement abuse
regarding abuse in health 2.2 explain how key professionals
are
involved in the
and social care contexts
protection of individuals and groups
vulnerable to
abuse


LO3
Understand working practice 3.1 explain existing working practices
and
strategies
and strategies used to designed to minimise abuse in health
and social care
minimise abuse
in
health and contexts
social care contexts. 3.2 evaluate the effectiveness of
working practices
and

strategies used to minimise abuse in
health and social
care contexts
3.3 discuss
possible improvements to
working practices and
strategies to minimise abuse in
health and social
care
contexts.




BH023333 – Edexcel
BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification
in Health and Social Care
– 47
Issue 1 – May 2010 ©
Edexcel Limited 2010



UNIT 10:
SAFEGUARDING INHEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE


Guidance

Links
This unit has links
with, for example:

Unit
1: Communicating in Health and Social Care Organisations
• Unit
2: Principles of Health and
Social Care Practice
• Unit
9: Empowering Users of Health and Social Care Services

Unit
16: Understanding Specific Needs in Health and Social Care
• Unit
19: Contemporary Issues in
Health and Social Care.
This
unit also has links with the National Occupational Standards in Health
and
Social Care. See Annexe B for mapping.
This
unit also has links with the National Occupational
Standards in Leadership and
Management for Care Services. See Annexe C for
mapping.
Essential
requirements
This unit requires formal classroom delivery
incorporating theoretical
concepts, research findings, evidence from
documentation, policy and legislation. Learners will need to work
with a wide
range of case studies that illustrate abuse scenarios. Consideration will need
to be given to
the concepts of risk, harm, abuse and intervention strategies.
Due
to the sensitive subject matter in this
unit, tutors must ensure learners have
access to support systems outside of the classroom.
Employer
engagement
and vocational contexts
Due
to the sensitive nature of this unit, any reference to authentic
vocational
contexts should be used with respect for the anonymity of individuals involved,
and
acknowledgement of the need for confidentiality. It is suggested that practitioners
from various health and
social care settings contribute to formal classroom
delivery and that learners work in small groups to
explore the often difficult
emotive content.

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james marks
London
Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 12:23

Communication in Health and Social Care

September 13,
2016
**

Uncategorized
Pearson
BTEC Level 4/5 HNC/D Diploma Health and Social Care – Unit 7 : Communication in Health and Social Care
Unit
Description
Communication In Health And Social Care
This is solution of communication in health social care
assignment, divided in three essays based on role of communication and method to improve communications.
Get
Assignment help for this assignment at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com
Communication In Health And Social
Care
Introduction
Communication In Health And Social Care
Communication is the most important tool
necessary in all human endeavours and health and social care needs the best of communication since it is
attached to someone's life. Doctors, nurses, assistants, clinicians, and all their team member need to
embrace the idea of communication as being more important than position or ego or hatred or carelessness. It
is the chief important thing in health and social care and there is not option to avoid it or even letting it
loose. This essay focuses on some aspects of importance of communication in health and social
care.
Communication In Health And Social Care
Essay Section 1 (Case study and Video)
Dealing with
inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals
Interpersonal skills are necessary to learn in
healthcare because when the doctor understands their own and the listener's interpersonal skills, they
will be able to deal with various tasks and especially with people. In healthcare, usually the doctor is at
command and asks questions to the patient or to their family, and the interaction is usually a simple one.
However, it is important to understand the hidden message behind the doctor's question and try and find
out the reason for asking certain question. This is critical to the patient or their family to understand. In
dealing with people with inappropriate interpersonal communication skills is to ask more questions to get to
the real meaning behind their intention. On asking questions, the listener would come to know the real fact
behind the message and learn to understand the problem better, which in turn will help him to take related
action to solve the problem. If this does not give fruitful answer, then it is better to observe the person
sending the message, look at his actions and gestures, the confidence in his message, and try and gauge the
intention behind the message. People usually tend to like other people who are like them, look like them,
behave like them, and are similar in their actions and thinking like them (Berscheid and Hatfield, 1969).
Hence it is easier to deal with such people who are similar, but some skills are required to be learned to
interact with people opposite from us.
Strategies to support users of health and social care services with
specific communication needs
In healthcare there are all kinds of people with special communication needs.
Some patients may not be able to speak at all, some may not understand English, some may not be educated to
understand the message, some may be deaf, some may not be in a position to speak and understand anything. For
such people, it is important to be caring, concerned, and be sensitive to such people, especially people with
disabilities. For them, strategies like non-verbal communication, sign language, lip reading, slang
expression, and choice of room or location for a conversation (Stretch, 2007). Such strategies are available
for dealing with patients with special communication needs. Using language to demonstrate things, assisting
them to touch a product to convey a message, explaining details and showing sights that are usually taken for
a specific understanding, and writing messages, etc. are some of the other ways in which the communication can
be carried out with people of special requirements. It is important to understand the specific needs of the
patients first and then try and address their concern with an appropriate language or communication channel.
Since Anna was not able to speak in a clear language, the doctors could have adopted a more simple and sign
language communication style to understand her problem. Doctors and nurses must rather be trained in way that
they have understanding of people in such communication styles to handle multiple patients who are unable to
speak or have a blurred speech. They can also use written communication with Anna with her pointing to yes or
no, thereby communicating the answer to the doctors.
Essay Section 2 (Mentoring case study)
How the
communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors
People are a mixture of different
cultures, different religions, adopting different beliefs, living style, dress codes, language, customs,
behaviours, etc. It is important to understand this difference in the health care sector, because not
understanding this may create and awkward situation which would be embarrassing for the patient to overcome.
The student nurse when comes up for new work, she does not attempt to make a very good impression in her first
visit to the patient. Instead of caring for an ailing patient and giving him a bowl, she insults him by
criticizing him for him having thrown out on the bed, and moreover, she also does not change his clothes and
asks other fellow nurse to do the job for her. This tells that the student nurse is coming from a different
background where she must have learned that caring for a patient does not include changing his clothes or
cleaning his bed. A patient from a different country admitted in another country where the first language is
not recognisable, it may prove difficult for his communication with the doctor. A patient from a different
culture and religion may not be able to understand the doctor's treatment method. So these cross cultural
differences also affect the communication in healthcare.
How legislation, charters and codes of practice
impact on the communication process in health and social care
Communication in healthcare is being governed
by some rules and legislation which needs to be followed. Practices like the confidentiality code of conduct
which does not allow anyone to share the patient details, protects their identity, informs them earlier about
the options available to them for choosing, are useful in protecting and maintaining a healthy information
flow and does not create any issue out of it. There is personal data and sensitive data which is to be shared
with concerned persons only and not with everyone. The sharing of this data is important because
patient's personal information is his personal identity and disclosing it to any unknown source is a
violation of the code. The sharing of sensitive data which includes patients with ethnic backgrounds, sexual
abuse cases, criminal records, etc. has even more stringent regulations to be followed. Thus rules,
legislation, copyright information is necessary in healthcare to safeguard the disclosure of personal and
sensitive information.
Effectiveness of organisational systems and policies in promoting good practice in
communication
Formulating organisational systems to be followed by every staff member in a health care set up
plays a vital role in managing communications practices. In the case, the student nurse came from a background
which was not similar to the hospitals set up. The doctor did a good job by observing the nurse and her acts,
which gave him an idea of how the nurse would eventually treat patients. The doctor did that because of an
organisational set up which needs to be followed by each nurse. The set up involving caring, cleaning, not
reacting for the mess of a patient, and showing concern for the patient by giving them confidence were not
seen to be reflecting in the student nurse. Thus, it requires an organisational set up for communication
issues which helps patients get the right message from the nurses. If there is no system, the nurse would not
know how to react in specific and sensitive situations, and it would spoil the entire reputation of the nurse,
doctor, and the set up. Behavioural conducts are important in healthcare to handle typical cases, but a
special kind of organisational learning is necessary to face the most difficult situations. There needs to be
a proper information strategy being formed and implemented in the hospital, so that each nurse gets the same
message. This strategy must be governed with a governing body to oversee any faults and improve it
periodically. The nurse must undergo an induction program where they are taught the entire scope of work for
themselves and no one must be allowed to start work if they do not pass in such induction program test. The
program is able to induct all nurses with the same and benchmarking activities to be followed by them.
Ways
of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting
In the case presented, the act of
mentoring is a significant factor in determining optimum communication excellence. By observing the student
nurse first, the doctor got an idea of the behaviour of the student and came to know exactly whether the nurse
was right for the set up or not. The process of communication is very crucial in the patient's recovery,
because the patient's condition is very fragile and needs immense care and concern at the right moments.
Collaborative working is one of the best ways that the doctor and nurse can adopt to improve their
communication skills with the patients and with each other to avoid any clashes. It is seen that communication
failures are the leading causes for occurrence of patient harm inadvertently (Leonard et.al, 2004). Working in
collaboration with each other tends to avoid unexpected lack of products or information transfer at the
crucial moment like a surgery, and it also manages to avoid any ambiguities in information. One other way to
improve the communication is to make the communication code of conduct to be followed by everyone and there
should be an inclusion of a heavy penalty if not followed. Closed circuit cameras to be put up to observe the
behaviours and communication of all, so that even in their seniors' absence, the violators would be
caught and punished. The adherence to such policies and conduct is necessary to be followed instead of just
forming them.
Essay Section 3 (ICT Technology)
Use of ICT software packages to support work in health and
social care
The use of software in healthcare is a supportive technology which is meant to improve the health
of the individual and also provide optimum accuracy to doctors for inspecting the situation of patients.
However in 2013, the extensive changes in the IT system and the NHS system, patient's personal records
could be at a risk, because the NHS is trying to include all patient information into a single IT system.
There are increasing pressures on the usage of NHS and IT system, but there are issues in the data safety of
patients' records, especially when there are 1.8 million records stolen in a single year (Doyle, 2013).
Information technology can enhance the time consuming activities of the doctor in studying the patient records
and can save a lot of time for patient treatment. Its use increases the quality of results, safety of results,
accuracy of results which helps in proper diagnosis giving the doctor correct and accurate information to deal
with to take appropriate action. The use of information technology also helps in maintaining proper track
records of nurses and assistants, maintaining their accountability, maintaining patient information. It helps
the smooth flow of information flow between different departments for avoiding errors and also to have
first-hand information to every department and not depend on secondary information passed on verbally. The
technology keeps a complete information track record of the patient including their age, diagnosis, past
medication, report results, radiology images, progress notes, vital signs, allergies, and all other health
related information about the patient. This enables to create a single master data which can be easily managed
and accessed by everyone governing the patient. However, there is a fear of the theft of information also in
such cases, and for that the access of it needs to be limited to the team looking after the patient and not
anyone else.
Benefits of using ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers and care
organisations.
One of the software for medical examination is the radiology machine which directly sends and
saves the images and reports to the patient's ID. When the patient finishes getting examined by a
radiologist, the report which is generated is directly sent to the patient ID saved in the computer and it
saves all images, all results, and all information data of the patient in it. Moreover, the same master data
created can be used to send to the consulting doctor immediately and the doctor can access the same within
minutes after the report is generated. Only once the information needs to be filled in, and after filling it
all the diagnosis and all possible causes comes up automatically with the most influenced being on the top.
Such software makes the job of the radiologist very easier and also for the consulting doctor. There are other
software like Clinical decision support system (CDSS), Picture archiving and support system (PACS), Electronic
materials management (EMM), Radio frequency identification (RDI). Automated dispensing machines (ADM), etc.
which equally provide multiple benefits to doctors, and officers. Care workers get a support system which
enhances their efficiency and effectiveness in working, along with ease of operations. They do not have to
re-enter new records every time for a patient, but can always use the system software to track the progress of
the patient and taken necessary information (Healthit.gov, 2014). The organization as a whole does benefit in
improving its overall efficiency of the staff and maintaining the patient record for a lifelong basis to
access it easily and readily and getting all basic information immediately without any hassle. This maintains
a good relationship between the health and social care organization and the patients.
Legal considerations in
the use of ICT impact on health and social care
Legal considerations play a leading role in its effects in
the health and social care sector. Every technology needs permission to be used by the government and where it
is to be used. Using it in hospitals needs special approval since it is a sensitive place with millions of
records of patients to be handled. If there is a ban in using certain technology in a country, it cannot be
used in the hospital, and thus the benefits that could have been derived from that instrument do not accrue to
the hospital. If there is a restriction in importing certain software. It may not be able to use the software
at all. This could have serious impacts on the health care sector. The unavailability of advanced technology
may reduce the efficiency of the staff, which in turn may not produce better results for patients care, and
this may increase the time for the patients' recovery. This also create more financial burden on the
patient, and draining of energy, time and money on the hospitals part. Though the advanced technology may have
many advantages, it also has some disadvantages. It may be very expensive to build and may be very complex in
its nature of operating. Workers using it may have to undergo substantial training in learning the new
operation. The Health and Safety Act 1974 indicts that all manufacturers of products being used at a hospital
will need to be safe and give reasonable support in its assigned scope. The ICT technology manufacturers will
need to be careful in designing nay products as they are legally bound by their professional responsibility.
The Data protection act 1998 may help the healthcare industry in conserving the information of the patients
and not share it with anyone with prior permission from the patient itself. The Computer misuse act 1990 may
penalise severely anyone who tries to misuse the computer to which the patient machines are attached and
constantly measures their blood pressure. This may prevent anyone from misusing it for personal gain, and if
found to be using it where not required, a heavy penalty may be enforced on the person. Thus with benefits,
the information technology also has its problems which may roll over to the patient and affect him. In spite
of this, it is better to be more efficient and effective with its use rather than depend on humans alone. If
properly handled with appropriate governance, it may prove to be profitable for all.
Get Assignment help for
this assignment at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com

 
james marks
London
Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 12:19

Communication in Health and Social Care

September 13,
2016
**

Uncategorized
Pearson
BTEC Level 4/5 HNC/D Diploma Health and Social Care – Unit 7 : Communication in Health and Social Care
Unit
Description
Communication In Health And Social Care
This is solution of communication in health social care
assignment, divided in three essays based on role of communication and method to improve communications.
Get
Assignment help for this assignment at hndassignmenthelp@gmail.com
Communication In Health And Social
Care
Introduction
Communication In Health And Social Care
Communication is the most important tool
necessary in all human endeavours and health and social care needs the best of communication since it is
attached to someone's life. Doctors, nurses, assistants, clinicians, and all their team member need to
embrace the idea of communication as being more important than position or ego or hatred or carelessness. It
is the chief important thing in health and social care and there is not option to avoid it or even letting it
loose. This essay focuses on some aspects of importance of communication in health and social
care.
Communication In Health And Social Care
Essay Section 1 (Case study and Video)
Dealing with
inappropriate interpersonal communication between individuals
Interpersonal skills are necessary to learn in
healthcare because when the doctor understands their own and the listener's interpersonal skills, they
will be able to deal with various tasks and especially with people. In healthcare, usually the doctor is at
command and asks questions to the patient or to their family, and the interaction is usually a simple one.
However, it is important to understand the hidden message behind the doctor's question and try and find
out the reason for asking certain question. This is critical to the patient or their family to understand. In
dealing with people with inappropriate interpersonal communication skills is to ask more questions to get to
the real meaning behind their intention. On asking questions, the listener would come to know the real fact
behind the message and learn to understand the problem better, which in turn will help him to take related
action to solve the problem. If this does not give fruitful answer, then it is better to observe the person
sending the message, look at his actions and gestures, the confidence in his message, and try and gauge the
intention behind the message. People usually tend to like other people who are like them, look like them,
behave like them, and are similar in their actions and thinking like them (Berscheid and Hatfield, 1969).
Hence it is easier to deal with such people who are similar, but some skills are required to be learned to
interact with people opposite from us.
Strategies to support users of health and social care services with
specific communication needs
In healthcare there are all kinds of people with special communication needs.
Some patients may not be able to speak at all, some may not understand English, some may not be educated to
understand the message, some may be deaf, some may not be in a position to speak and understand anything. For
such people, it is important to be caring, concerned, and be sensitive to such people, especially people with
disabilities. For them, strategies like non-verbal communication, sign language, lip reading, slang
expression, and choice of room or location for a conversation (Stretch, 2007). Such strategies are available
for dealing with patients with special communication needs. Using language to demonstrate things, assisting
them to touch a product to convey a message, explaining details and showing sights that are usually taken for
a specific understanding, and writing messages, etc. are some of the other ways in which the communication can
be carried out with people of special requirements. It is important to understand the specific needs of the
patients first and then try and address their concern with an appropriate language or communication channel.
Since Anna was not able to speak in a clear language, the doctors could have adopted a more simple and sign
language communication style to understand her problem. Doctors and nurses must rather be trained in way that
they have understanding of people in such communication styles to handle multiple patients who are unable to
speak or have a blurred speech. They can also use written communication with Anna with her pointing to yes or
no, thereby communicating the answer to the doctors.
Essay Section 2 (Mentoring case study)
How the
communication process is influenced by values and cultural factors
People are a mixture of different
cultures, different religions, adopting different beliefs, living style, dress codes, language, customs,
behaviours, etc. It is important to understand this difference in the health care sector, because not
understanding this may create and awkward situation which would be embarrassing for the patient to overcome.
The student nurse when comes up for new work, she does not attempt to make a very good impression in her first
visit to the patient. Instead of caring for an ailing patient and giving him a bowl, she insults him by
criticizing him for him having thrown out on the bed, and moreover, she also does not change his clothes and
asks other fellow nurse to do the job for her. This tells that the student nurse is coming from a different
background where she must have learned that caring for a patient does not include changing his clothes or
cleaning his bed. A patient from a different country admitted in another country where the first language is
not recognisable, it may prove difficult for his communication with the doctor. A patient from a different
culture and religion may not be able to understand the doctor's treatment method. So these cross cultural
differences also affect the communication in healthcare.
How legislation, charters and codes of practice
impact on the communication process in health and social care
Communication in healthcare is being governed
by some rules and legislation which needs to be followed. Practices like the confidentiality code of conduct
which does not allow anyone to share the patient details, protects their identity, informs them earlier about
the options available to them for choosing, are useful in protecting and maintaining a healthy information
flow and does not create any issue out of it. There is personal data and sensitive data which is to be shared
with concerned persons only and not with everyone. The sharing of this data is important because
patient's personal information is his personal identity and disclosing it to any unknown source is a
violation of the code. The sharing of sensitive data which includes patients with ethnic backgrounds, sexual
abuse cases, criminal records, etc. has even more stringent regulations to be followed. Thus rules,
legislation, copyright information is necessary in healthcare to safeguard the disclosure of personal and
sensitive information.
Effectiveness of organisational systems and policies in promoting good practice in
communication
Formulating organisational systems to be followed by every staff member in a health care set up
plays a vital role in managing communications practices. In the case, the student nurse came from a background
which was not similar to the hospitals set up. The doctor did a good job by observing the nurse and her acts,
which gave him an idea of how the nurse would eventually treat patients. The doctor did that because of an
organisational set up which needs to be followed by each nurse. The set up involving caring, cleaning, not
reacting for the mess of a patient, and showing concern for the patient by giving them confidence were not
seen to be reflecting in the student nurse. Thus, it requires an organisational set up for communication
issues which helps patients get the right message from the nurses. If there is no system, the nurse would not
know how to react in specific and sensitive situations, and it would spoil the entire reputation of the nurse,
doctor, and the set up. Behavioural conducts are important in healthcare to handle typical cases, but a
special kind of organisational learning is necessary to face the most difficult situations. There needs to be
a proper information strategy being formed and implemented in the hospital, so that each nurse gets the same
message. This strategy must be governed with a governing body to oversee any faults and improve it
periodically. The nurse must undergo an induction program where they are taught the entire scope of work for
themselves and no one must be allowed to start work if they do not pass in such induction program test. The
program is able to induct all nurses with the same and benchmarking activities to be followed by them.
Ways
of improving the communication process in a health and social care setting
In the case presented, the act of
mentoring is a significant factor in determining optimum communication excellence. By observing the student
nurse first, the doctor got an idea of the behaviour of the student and came to know exactly whether the nurse
was right for the set up or not. The process of communication is very crucial in the patient's recovery,
because the patient's condition is very fragile and needs immense care and concern at the right moments.
Collaborative working is one of the best ways that the doctor and nurse can adopt to improve their
communication skills with the patients and with each other to avoid any clashes. It is seen that communication
failures are the leading causes for occurrence of patient harm inadvertently (Leonard et.al, 2004). Working in
collaboration with each other tends to avoid unexpected lack of products or information transfer at the
crucial moment like a surgery, and it also manages to avoid any ambiguities in information. One other way to
improve the communication is to make the communication code of conduct to be followed by everyone and there
should be an inclusion of a heavy penalty if not followed. Closed circuit cameras to be put up to observe the
behaviours and communication of all, so that even in their seniors' absence, the violators would be
caught and punished. The adherence to such policies and conduct is necessary to be followed instead of just
forming them.
Essay Section 3 (ICT Technology)
Use of ICT software packages to support work in health and
social care
The use of software in healthcare is a supportive technology which is meant to improve the health
of the individual and also provide optimum accuracy to doctors for inspecting the situation of patients.
However in 2013, the extensive changes in the IT system and the NHS system, patient's personal records
could be at a risk, because the NHS is trying to include all patient information into a single IT system.
There are increasing pressures on the usage of NHS and IT system, but there are issues in the data safety of
patients' records, especially when there are 1.8 million records stolen in a single year (Doyle, 2013).
Information technology can enhance the time consuming activities of the doctor in studying the patient records
and can save a lot of time for patient treatment. Its use increases the quality of results, safety of results,
accuracy of results which helps in proper diagnosis giving the doctor correct and accurate information to deal
with to take appropriate action. The use of information technology also helps in maintaining proper track
records of nurses and assistants, maintaining their accountability, maintaining patient information. It helps
the smooth flow of information flow between different departments for avoiding errors and also to have
first-hand information to every department and not depend on secondary information passed on verbally. The
technology keeps a complete information track record of the patient including their age, diagnosis, past
medication, report results, radiology images, progress notes, vital signs, allergies, and all other health
related information about the patient. This enables to create a single master data which can be easily managed
and accessed by everyone governing the patient. However, there is a fear of the theft of information also in
such cases, and for that the access of it needs to be limited to the team looking after the patient and not
anyone else.
Benefits of using ICT in health and social care for users of services, care workers and care
organisations.
One of the software for medical examination is the radiology machine which directly sends and
saves the images and reports to the patient's ID. When the patient finishes getting examined by a
radiologist, the report which is generated is directly sent to the patient ID saved in the computer and it
saves all images, all results, and all information data of the patient in it. Moreover, the same master data
created can be used to send to the consulting doctor immediately and the doctor can access the same within
minutes after the report is generated. Only once the information needs to be filled in, and after filling it
all the diagnosis and all possible causes comes up automatically with the most influenced being on the top.
Such software makes the job of the radiologist very easier and also for the consulting doctor. There are other
software like Clinical decision support system (CDSS), Picture archiving and support system (PACS), Electronic
materials management (EMM), Radio frequency identification (RDI). Automated dispensing machines (ADM), etc.
which equally provide multiple benefits to doctors, and officers. Care workers get a support system which
enhances their efficiency and effectiveness in working, along with ease of operations. They do not have to
re-enter new records every time for a patient, but can always use the system software to track the progress of
the patient and taken necessary information (Healthit.gov, 2014). The organization as a whole does benefit in
improving its overall efficiency of the staff and maintaining the patient record for a lifelong basis to
access it easily and readily and getting all basic information immediately without any hassle. This maintains
a good relationship between the health and social care organization and the patients.
Legal considerations in
the use of ICT impact on health and social care
Legal considerations play a leading role in its effects in
the health and social care sector. Every technology needs permission to be used by the government and where it
is to be used. Using it in hospitals needs special approval since it is a sensitive place with millions of
records of patients to be handled. If there is a ban in using certain technology in a country, it cannot be
used in the hospital, and thus the benefits that could have been derived from that instrument do not accrue to
the hospital. If there is a restriction in importing certain software. It may not be able to use the software
at all. This could have serious impacts on the health care sector. The unavailability of advanced technology
may reduce the efficiency of the staff, which in turn may not produce better results for patients care, and
this may increase the time for the patients' recovery. This also create more financial burden on the
patient, and draining of energy, time and money on the hospitals part. Though the advanced technology may have
many advantages, it also has some disadvantages. It may be very expensive to build and may be very complex in
its nature of operating. Workers using it may have to undergo substantial training in learning the new
operation. The Health and Safety Act 1974 indicts that all manufacturers of products being used at a hospital
will need to be safe and give reasonable support in its assigned scope. The ICT technology manufacturers will
need to be careful in designing nay products as they are legally bound by their professional responsibility.
The Data protection act 1998 may help the healthcare industry in conserving the information of the patients
and not share it with anyone with prior permission from the patient itself. The Computer misuse act 1990 may
penalise severely anyone who tries to misuse the computer to which the patient machines are attached and
constantly measures their blood pressure. This may prevent anyone from misusing it for personal gain, and if
found to be using it where not required, a heavy penalty may be enforced on the person. Thus with benefits,
the information technology also has its problems which may roll over to the patient and affect him. In spite
of this, it is better to be more efficient and effective with its use rather than depend on humans alone. If
properly handled with appropriate governance, it may prove to be profitable for all.
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Unit 8 The Sociological Context of Health and Social
Care

**


Uncategorized
Unit 8: The
Sociological Context of Health
and Social Care
Unit code: F/601/1593
QCF level: 4
Credit
value: 15

• Aim
The
aim of this unit is to help learners gain understanding of
sociological
concepts and their application to policy making and care practice in health and
social
care.
• Unit abstract
This
unit enables learners to gain understanding of the nature of
contemporary
society. Learners will explore how society is structured in terms of age,
gender, ethnicity,
social class, family and households. Learners will also
consider the impact of marriage, partnership
formation and relationship
breakdown on health and wellbeing.
The
focus of the unit will be to consider the
impact that social inequalities in
society have on policy-making and care practice in health and social
care.
Learners will examine the factors that contribute to health and wellbeing from
sociological
perspectives and will explore health inequalities. Learners will
develop an understanding of how social
factors influence the provision and
delivery of health and social care services and their role as a key
determinant
affecting health and social care outcomes for individuals.
• Learning outcomes
On successful
completion of this unit a
learner will:
1
Understand
the contemporary nature of society
2

Understand
how social inequalities influence the life chances and health status of
individuals
3
Understand
sociological concepts and theory in relation to contemporary social and health
issues.




BH023333 – Edexcel
BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social
Care
– 37
Issue 1 – May 2010 ©
Edexcel Limited 2010



UNIT 8: THE SOCIOLOGICALCONTEXT OF
HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE


1
Understand the contemporary nature of society
Political and
economic
constructs: systems of stratification (age, gender,
ethnicity, social class, households, partnership
formation and
relationship breakdown)
Social constructs:
family and households; community; education; work;
unemployment; leisure
Societal change:
demographic (population profiles, national, regional); economic
(wealth, technological
development)
Cultural values and
beliefs: related to diversity; ethnicity; religious
belief;
distribution of income and wealth
Implications
for health and social care sector: services;
resources; access
2
Understand how social inequalities
influence the life chances and health status of
individuals
Sources of data:
the census; birth and death registrations; population estimates and
projections;
population locations
Sociological
perspectives:
conflict and consensus theories; social
construct theories
Inequalities in
health and social care: biological factors (heredity);
individual needs;
access issues; health and social care outcomes
Health status:
holistic consideration of health and wellbeing
status; physical eg immune status;
mental health; emotional health; social health eg friendship networks,
mobility
Life chances:
education opportunity; housing; social networks; employment; affluence;
lifestyle
choices; risks eg accidents, deviant behaviours; access to support
3 Understand
sociological
concepts and theory in relation to contemporary social and health
issues
Sociological
definitions
of:
health; illness; disability
Social
issues and problems in contemporary society: population change
eg
proportion of working age, population mobility, pensions, changing
care needs and expectations; work eg
stress, changing nature of work,
unemployment, distribution of wealth; technological advances eg in
therapies,
assistive technologies, expectations; lifestyle choices eg leisure, activity,
substance misuse;
the role of politics, media and public opinion in shaping the
health and social care
agenda
Social
inequalities in contemporary society: life chances; physical
environment eg housing,
transport, urban versus rural, employment,
pollution; choice and access to services eg education, social
care, health
care; resources eg income, benefits, time; the ability of services to
compensate for biological
factors influencing health and wellbeing



38 BH023333
– Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals
specification in Health and
Social Care

Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010




UNIT 8: THE SOCIOLOGICALCONTEXT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE


Learning outcomes and assessment criteria


Learning outcomes Assessment criteria
for pass
On successful
completion of The learner can:
this
unit a learner
will:

LO1 Understand the 1.1 explain how political, social and
economic
constructs
contemporary nature of can be used to categorise society
society 1.2 review current trends
in societal
change, including how

these might shape social
expectations
1.3 discuss the
influence of cultural
values and beliefs in
society
1.4 evaluate the implications of
societal
change for the
health and social care sector

LO2 Understand how
social 2.1 use data to
explain inequalities
which exist in health and
inequalities influence the life social care
chances
and
health status of 2.2 analyse social inequalities from
a
sociological
individuals
perspective

2.3 analyse how inequalities which exist
in
health and social
care can impact on an individual's
health status and
life
chances

LO3 Understand
sociological 3.1 apply sociological concepts and
theory to
definitions of
concepts and theory in health and wellbeing
relation to contemporary 3.2 use data to
explain how social and
health issues are
social and health issues.
socially
constructed

3.3 explain the possible implications of
social and health
issues for health
and social care
service providers
3.4 analyse social and health issues in
terms of their
impact
on the health and wellbeing of
individuals in society.




BH023333 –
Edexcel
BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care
– 39
Issue 1 –
May 2010 ©
Edexcel Limited 2010



UNIT 8: THE SOCIOLOGICALCONTEXT OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL
CARE


Guidance

Links
This unit has links
with, for example:
• Unit
2: Principles of Health
and Social Care Practice
• Unit
7: Social Policy
• Unit
17: Community Development
Work.
This
unit also has links with the National Occupational Standards in Health and
Social Care. See
Annexe B for mapping.
This unit also has links with the National Occupational
Standards in Leadership and
Management for Care Services. See Annexe C
for mapping.
Essential
requirements
There
are no specific
requirements for this unit, but an appropriate selection of books
and journals is strongly recommended. In
particular, the following resource is
critical reading for sociological study at this level:
Haralambos
M
and Holborn M – Sociology:
Themes and Perspectives (Collins, 2008) ISBN 9780007245956
Employer
engagement
and vocational contexts
Input
from specialists, for example community or social workers, would
be beneficial
to the delivery of this unit.




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UNIT 9: EMPOWERING USERS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SERVICES

January 3, 2016

HND Assignment
Help
UNIT 9: EMPOWERING USERS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SERVICES

**

Unit
9: Empowering Users of Health and
Social Care Services
Unit code: D/601/1598
QCF level: 4

Credit value: 15


• Aim

The aim of this unit is to enable learners to explore how to
empower individuals using health and social care services in order to maximise their independence.


• Unit abstract

It is essential for all health and social care professionals to understand that the
service they deliver enables individuals to participate in the decisions that are made about their lives.


First, learners will explore how legislation and the sector skills standards regarding the design and review
of services promote independence, which in turn is captured within organisational policies and procedures.
Second, learners will investigate factors that can affect participation, independence and choice, including
systems for assessing and minimising risk. Finally, learners will investigate the administration of medicine
and the effectiveness of policies and procedures for administering medication in achieving the best possible
outcomes for users of services. Learners will study legislation and factors that affect the care that is
received. Learners will also examine strategies to promote the best possible outcomes for individual users of
services.

• Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this unit a learner will:


• Understand how the design and review of services promotes and maximises the rights of users of health
and social care services

• Understand how to promote the participation and independence of users of
health and social care services

• Understand the responsibility of managing and monitoring risks in
health and social care settings

• Understand how good practice in the administration of medicine is
essential for users of health and social care services.











BH023333 – Edexcel
BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – 41
Issue 1 – May 2010 ©
Edexcel Limited 2010


UNIT 9: EMPOWERING USERS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SERVICES





• Understand how the design and review of services promotes and maximises the rights of users of health
and social care services

Legislation and sector skills standards: current legislation and sector skills
standards that are relevant to promoting the rights of individuals; inspection processes, powers, duties,
responsibilities, accountabilities, entitlements; organisations: providing services for vulnerable people


Factors: policies, procedures; staffing eg staffing levels, shift patterns, continuing professional
development; individual eg level of dependence, changing health status

Communication: methods to overcome
differences in communication eg second language, disability; recording information for continuous improvement
eg best outcome for users of services, feedback, complaints, comments, inspection, recommendations for
improvement

• Understand how to promote the participation and independence of users of health and social
care services

Factors affecting independence and choice: dependence, independence, choice, constraints,
empowerment; physical, social, emotional, intellectual factors; changing needs, access to information,
participation in decision making

Organisational systems: ensuring performance of workers, sources of
information for individuals, empowering individuals

Considerations: possible tensions eg safety versus
independence, rights responsibilities; individuals, others

• Understand the responsibility of managing
and monitoring risks in health and social care settings

Risks: from harm; from abuse; from failure to
protect

Effective management of risks: relevant legislation; acceptable and unacceptable risks; protection
from unacceptable risk; national service standards; assessing and recording risk, complaints procedures;
leadership style, whistleblowing policy


• Understand how good practice in the administration of
medication is essential for users of health and social care services

Handling of medication: ordering and
maintaining, administration, storage, recording, disposal

National standards: current standards and
legislation; codes of practice and policies; national inquiries eg the Shipman inquiry; ethical issues;
service user choice; acceptable risk; standard for medication















42 BH023333 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care

Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010


UNIT 9: EMPOWERING USERS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
SERVICES




Learning outcomes and assessment criteria

Learning outcomes Assessment criteria
for pass
On successful completion of The learner can:
this unit a learner will:


LO1 Understand how the design 1.1 explain how current legislation and sector skills
and review of
services standards influence organisational policies and practices
promotes and maximises the for
promoting and maximising the rights of users of
rights of users of health and health and social care
services
social care services 1.2 analyse factors that may affect the achievement of


promoting and maximising the rights of users of health
and social care services

1.3 analyse how communication between care workers and
individuals contribute to promoting and
maximising the
rights of users of health and social care services

LO2 Understand
how to promote 2.1 explain factors that may contribute to loss of
the participation and
independence, non-participation and social exclusion for
independence of users of vulnerable people

health and social care 2.2 analyse how organisational systems and processes are
services

managed to promote participation and independence of

users of health and social care
services
2.3 analyse the tensions that arise when balancing the
rights of the individual
to independence and choice
against the care provider's duty to protect

LO3
Understand the responsibility 3.1 use a case study from a health or social care setting to
of managing
and monitoring identify the extent to which individuals are at risk of
risks in health and social
harm
care settings 3.2 analyse the effectiveness of policies, procedures and


managerial approach within a health or social care
setting for promoting the management of risks


LO4 Understand how good 4.1 review current legislation, codes of practice and policy

practice in the administration that apply to the handling of medication
of medication is essential
for 4.2 evaluate the effectiveness of policies and procedures
users of health and social

within a health and social care setting for administering
care services.
medication.


















BH023333 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5
Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – 43
Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited
2010


UNIT 9: EMPOWERING USERS OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE SERVICES




Guidance




Links

This unit has links with, for example:

• Unit 1: Communicating in Health and Social Care
Organisations

• Unit 10: Safeguarding in Health and Social Care

• Unit 21: Supporting Significant
Life Events.

This unit also has links with the National Occupational Standards in Health and Social Care.
See Annexe B for mapping.

This unit also has links with the National Occupational Standards in Leadership
and Management for Care Services. See Annexe C for mapping.

Essential requirements

Learners will
require access to legislation and policy documents particularly in relation to risk assessments and the
administration of medication within health and social care settings.

Employer engagement and vocational
contexts

Learners' experiences from the workplace could be drawn out through class discussion and may
be usefully facilitated by exploration of vocational case studies, particularly in relation to organisational
processes. Care should always be taken to protect the confidentiality of individuals.
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UNIT 5: WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE

anuary 3, 2016

HND Assignment Help
UNIT
5: WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE

**

Unit 5: Working
in Partnership in Health
and Social Care
Unit code: F/601/1576
QCF level: 5
Credit value: 15



• Aim

The aim of this unit is to enable learners to develop understanding of the
importance of working positively in partnership with others in health and social care.

• Unit abstract


Working in partnership is a key element of practice within health and social care. The concepts of power
sharing, consultation and joint ways of working are essential for effective service provision. Health and
social care professionals need to understand the importance of promoting autonomy with individuals. They also
need to be aware of their own roles and responsibilities and how they relate to others within the sector.


Learners will explore the nature of partnership on three levels. First they will examine partnerships with
users of services that empower individuals to make informed decisions and encourage independence. Second they
will consider partnerships between different professionals within health and social care and explore
inter-agency working. Finally, they will investigate organisational partnerships and examines different ways
of joint working at a strategic level. Learners will study a range of theories and research findings relating
to partnership philosophies and joint working practices. Methods of promoting positive partnership working
will be analysed along with relevant legislation and organisational policies and procedures. Learners will
also examine strategies to improve the outcomes of partnership working for users of services, professionals
and organisations.

• Learning outcomes

On successful completion of this unit a learner will:


• Understand partnership philosophies and relationships in health and social care services


• Understand how to promote positive partnership working with users of services, professionals and
organisations in health and social care services

• Be able to evaluate the outcomes of partnership
working for users of services, professionals and organisations in health and social care services.










BH023333 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social
Care – 21
Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010


UNIT 5: WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IN
HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE




Unit content



• Understand partnership philosophies and
relationships in health and social care services

Partnership philosophies: empowerment; independence;
autonomy; respect; power sharing; making informed choices

Partnership relationships: with users of
services eg children, elderly, young people in care, people with disabilities, people with learning
difficulties, people with mental health issues, patients, refugees, asylum seekers; with professional groups
eg social workers, health workers, educationalists, therapists, support workers; with organisations eg
statutory, voluntary, private, independent, charitable, community forums


• Understand how to promote
positive partnership working with users of services, professionals and organisations in health and social care
services

Positive partnership working: empowerment; theories of collaborative working; informed decision
making; information sharing; confidentiality; professional roles and responsibilities; models of working eg
unified, coordinated, coalition and hybrid models; management structures; communication methods; current
inter-disciplinary and inter-agency working eg Multi-Area Agreements (MAA), Local Area Agreements (LAA); joint
working agreements

Legislation affecting partnership working: current and relevant legislation eg relating
to health, social care, safeguarding children and young people, mental health, disability, data protection,
diversity, equality and inclusion

Organisational practices and policies: current and relevant practices;
agreed ways of working; statutory, voluntary and private agency practices; local, regional and national policy
documents produced by eg government departments, specialists units, voluntary agencies; risk assessment
procedures; employment practices; service planning procedures


• Be able to evaluate the outcomes of
partnership working for users of services, professionals and organisations in health and social care
services

Outcomes for users of services: positive outcomes eg improved services, empowerment, autonomy,
informed decision making; negative outcomes eg neglect, abuse, harm, anger, miscommunication, information
overload, confusion, frustration, duplication of service provision, disempowerment

Outcomes for
professionals: positive outcomes eg coordinated service provision, professional approach, clear roles and
responsibilities, organised communication, avoidance of duplication, preventing mistakes, efficient use of
resources; negative outcomes eg professional rivalry, miscommunication, time wasting, mismanagement of
funding

Outcomes for organisations: positive outcomes eg coherent approach, shared principles,
comprehensive service provision, common working practices, integrated services; negative outcomes eg
communication breakdown, disjointed service provision, increased costs, loss of shared purpose







22 BH023333 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care

– Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2010


UNIT 5: WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH AND
SOCIAL CARE



Barriers to partnership working: lack of understanding of roles and responsibilities;
negative attitudes; lack of communication, not sharing information; different priorities; different attitudes
and values

Strategies to improve outcomes: communication, information sharing; consultation; negotiation;
models of empowerment; collective multi-agency working; dealing with conflict; stakeholder analysis

































































BH023333 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4 and 5
Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care – 23
Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited
2010


UNIT 5: WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE




Learning outcomes and
assessment criteria

Learning outcomes Assessment criteria for pass
On successful completion of The
learner can:
this unit a learner will:

LO1 Understand partnership 1.1 explain the
philosophy of working in partnership in
philosophies and health and social care
relationships in
health and 1.2 evaluate partnership relationships within health and
social care services

social care services


LO2 Understand how to promote 2.1 analyse models of
partnership working across the health
positive partnership working and social care sector
with
users of services, 2.2 review current legislation and organisational practices
professionals and

and policies for partnership working in health and social
organisations in health and

care
social care services

2.3 explain how differences in working
practices and
policies affect collaborative working

LO3 Be able to evaluate the
3.1 evaluate possible outcomes of partnership working for
outcomes of partnership users of services,
professionals and organisations
working for users of services, 3.2 analyse the potential barriers to
partnership working in
professionals and
health and social care services
organisations
in health and

social care services. 3.3 devise strategies to improve outcomes for
partnership
working in health and social care services.



































24 BH023333 – Edexcel BTEC Levels 4
and 5 Higher Nationals specification in Health and Social Care
– Issue 1 – May 2010 © Edexcel Limited
2010


UNIT 5: WORKING IN PARTNERSHIP IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE



Guidance



Links


This unit has links with, for example:

• Unit 1: Communicating in Health and Social Care
Organisations

• Unit 2: Principles of Health and Social Care Practice

• Unit 17: Community
Development Work

• Unit 21: Supporting Significant Life Events.

This unit also has links with the
National Occupational Standards in Health and Social Care. See Annexe B for mapping.

This unit also has
links with the National Occupational Standards in Leadership and Management for Care Services. See Annexe C
for mapping.

Essential requirements

Tutors must have sound knowledge of the working practices of a
range of different services in health and social care, housing and education. The philosophy of working in
partnership will need to be outlined with reference to the Children Act 2004, the NHS and Community Care Act
1990 and the Working Together 1999 document and current and emerging policy initiatives.

Employer
engagement and vocational contexts

The delivery of this unit relies heavily on employer engagement and
would benefit from professional input. Access to policy on partnership from different organisations would be
useful as would case studies from a range of health and social care contexts.
HND Assignment help is pioneer
in the human resource management assignment help services and we offer coursework help with 100% unique
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Darell Rykert
Dallas
Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 09:11
So should you work out to improve your metabolism? The best you can do is to spend one hour in a gymnasium a
few times. You should train muscle tissue for 30 to 40 minutes for then to do some cardiovascular training for
another 20 to 30 minutes when you are there. It's a great mixture of training muscles and your heart at
exactly the same time and it will require your metabolism to do the next degree.
 
james marks
London
Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 08:29

Unit 4 Personal and professional development in health and social care

August 6, 2016

**
Unca
tegorized
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Unit 4: Personal & Professional Development in Health and Social
Care
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Module Handbook for HND Health & Social Care
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Help
Unit Name: Personal & Professional Development in Health and Social Care
Unit Number: 4
NQF
Level: 4
Tutor & Assessor: Lorna Brooks
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Shepherd Ziko
Email :
This unit aims to
encourage learners to develop as reflective practitioners. Learners will be expected to complete a minimum of
200 hours of work experience in order to achieve this unit, which may be completed either on an unpaid basis
or as an employee. Evidence for assessment of the unit will originate from learners' own practice,
observations and learning in the practice setting(s) supplemented by wider understanding and knowledge gained
from all parts of the course and if appropriate, from wider experience. Learners will demonstrate their
learning from their experience in work experience or care employment. Learners could plan their own personal
development, monitor their progress and revise the plan as appropriate for achieving the learning outcomes and
personal targets. Learners will be expected to present a portfolio of evidence that accurately reflects their
abilities as reflective practitioners. Evidence from workplace settings should be validated and authenticated
by appropriately qualified expert witnesses.
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It is essential that learners and assessors
respect the confidentiality of information from the workplace at all times.
Assignment Help
Summary of
Learning Outcomes
To achieve a pass learners must demonstrate the ability to deal with each of the following
outcomes and present these in report form – scripts will be checked against each of these:
1. Analyze how
personal values and principles influence individual contributions to work in health and social care
settings.
2. Produce, monitor, revise and evaluate plans for personal progress in developing the skills and
abilities required of a care worker.
3. Analyze the application of principles of professional engagement with
service users in a specific setting.
4. Demonstrate development of skills and understanding in relation to
working with other workers in health and social care contexts.
Unit content:
LO1 Values and
principles
Personal values: e.g. beliefs and preferences, culture, political perspectives, interests and
priorities, change over lifespan to date

Culture and experiences: e.g. family, ethnicity, belief,
education, employment, age and gender, life events

Values and principles: equal rights, diversity,
confidentiality, protection from abuse and harm

New developments: legislation, policies, research,
priorities and targets

Changes to personal values: influence of e.g. overcoming of tensions between
personal values and principles of good practice, differences relating to values of others (e.g. service users,
workplace organisation, and other people with whom you work)

LO2 Plans for personal progress
Own
abilities and learning styles: practical skills, interpersonal skills, application to practice, level of
performance, learning experiences and preferred learning style

Personal development plan: for acquiring
new skills, updating practice, learning, career development; 3 months, 1 year, 5 years

LO3 Principles of
professional engagement
Professional relationships: with individuals, their family and friends, team members,
line managers, workers in other agencies; rights and responsibilities of service users versus care workers and
others, professional codes, trust, advocacy, empowerment,

Models of support: medical health v social
model; individual benefit versus organisational benefit etc.

Dilemmas: risk, abuse, challenging behaviour,
conflict, ethics, confidentiality v disclosure, expectations changing over time, conflicts between principles
of good practice and values of others

Own Practice: e.g. meeting service user needs, provider of health
and social care services, facilitator, advocate, advisor, counsellor, mentor etc.

Barriers:
miscommunication, different professional codes of practice, group cohesiveness, personalities etc.

LO4
Working with other workers
Own contribution: skills, knowledge, understanding, communicating information,
responsibilities

Collective effectiveness of teams: meeting service user needs and expectations, improving
team performance, supporting other team members, meeting objectives, formal and informal roles within
organisational structures and systems

Barriers: interpersonal interactions; professional codes, differing
priorities, expectations, experience, accountability
Marking and Grading:
Pass Assessment Criteria
To
achieve PASS grade the student must meet all the learning outcomes mentioned below:
Pass
Descriptor Assessment Criteria
LO1. Analyze how personal values and principles influence individual
contributions to work in health and social care settings.

1.1. Compare personal values and beliefs with
the values and principles of care.
1.2. Analyse how your own culture and experience influences your
contributions to support for service users and other people in the workplace.
1.3. Explain how new
developments impact upon your role as a care worker.
1.4. Discuss how changes to personal values have
contributed to your development as a care worker.
LO2. Produce, monitor, revise and evaluate plans for
personal progress in developing the skills and abilities required of a care worker.
2.1. Assess your own
abilities and preferred learning styles.
2.2. Produce and justify a personal development plan with short-,
medium- and long-term aims and outcomes.
2.3. Monitor your progress against the personal plan on a regular
basis, revising the plan as required.
2.4. Evaluate the effectiveness of the personal development plan to
your development as a care worker.
LO3. Analyze the application of principles of professional engagement with
service users in a specific setting.
3.1. Analyse the nature of different professional relationships in
health and social care contexts.
3.2. Analyse the effectiveness of different models of support used in health
and social care settings.
3.3. Critically analyse own role in promoting the individual's choice, ability
and right to care for and protect themselves.
3.4. Describe how dilemmas encountered in professional
relationships may be dealt with.
3.5. Analyse personal effectiveness in supporting service users, their
family and friends.
LO4. Demonstrate development of skills and understanding in relation to working with
other workers in health and social care contexts 4.1 Evaluate own contributions to the work teams to which you
belong
4.2 Discuss how your contributions influence the collective effectiveness of the different teams of
which you are a member
4.3 Describe the limits of your work role and how these impact on your work with
others
4.4 Analyse barriers to effective teamwork and your role in minimising such barriers in the teams in
which you work
4.5 Suggest ways for improving personal contributions and collective effectiveness of a team
of which you are a member

Merit descriptors

Merit Descriptors Exemplar Indicative Characteristics
In
order to achieve merit the learner must: The learner's evidence shows for example
Identify and apply
strategies to find appropriate solutions
§ Effective judgements have been made
§ Complex problems with
more than one variable have been explored
§ An effective approach to study and research has been
applied
Select/design and apply appropriate methods/techniques



§ Relevant theories and
techniques have been applied
§ A range of methods and techniques have been applied
§ A range of sources
of information has been used
§ The selection of methods and techniques/sources has been justified
§ The
design of methods/techniques has been justified
§ Complex information/data has been synthesised and
processed
§ Appropriate learning methods/techniques have been applied
Present and communicate appropriate
findings
§ The appropriate
structure and approach has been used
§ Coherent, logical development of principles/concepts for the
intended audience
§ A range of methods of presentation have been used and technical language has been
accurately used
§ Communication has taken place in familiar and unfamiliar contexts
§ The communication
is appropriate for familiar and unfamiliar audiences and appropriate media have been used.





Distinction descriptors
Distinction Descriptors Exemplar Indicative Characteristics
In order to achieve
distinction the learner must: The learner's evidence shows for example
Use critical reflection to
evaluate own work and justify valid conclusions
§ Conclusions have been arrived at through synthesis of
ideas and have been justified
§ The validity of results has been evaluated using defined criteria
§
Self-criticism of approach has taken place
§ Realistic improvement have been produced against defined
characteristics for success
Take responsibility for managing and organizing activities

§
Autonomy/independence has been demonstrated
§ Substantial activities, projects or investigations have been
planned, managed and organized
§ Activities have been managed
§ The unforeseen has been accommodated
§
The importance of interdependence has been recognized and achieved
Demonstrate convergent /lateral /creative
thinking
§ Ideas have been
generated and decisions taken
§ Self-evaluation has taken place
§ Convergent and lateral thinking have
been applied
§ Problems have been solves
§ Innovation and creative thought have been applied
§
Receptiveness to new ideas is evident
§ Effective thinking has taken in unfamiliar contexts









Teaching strategies used:
Each session, there will be of a two hour lecture session to the whole
cohort followed by a two hour tutorial which includes assignment/exam focused discussions, group exercises,
case studies and worked examples. During the tutorial session, students will be encouraged to read the
relevant materials, conduct brainstorming sessions, lead the discussion. Lecturer acts in a supporting role
and expects students to answer questions, provide presentations, and sit for quiz tests.
TEACHING, LEARNING
AND ASSESSMENT ACTIVITIES STUDY HOURS
12 x 3 hours lectures 36
12 x 1 hours
tutorials/seminars 12
Independent study 90
Assignment/exam, research, writing 30
TOTAL 168
Assessment
Weighting for personal & professional development
(1) Assignment /Coursework

%(2)
Reflective log

%Support materials
Textbooks

Belbin, R. M. Team Roles
at Work (Second Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 2010)
This book provides guidance on reflective practice


Bolton, G. E. J. Reflective Practice, Writing and Development (Second Edition, Sage
Publications Ltd,
2005)
Magazines, journals and other publications
Community Care
Nursing and Residential Care
Nursing
Standard
Nursing Times
Websites
Websites that support the development of this unit include those of health
and social care associations and employers. The following may be particularly useful:

Learners should be
encouraged to consult a wide range of commercial websites to support the evidence they develop for this
unit.
Web pages provide access to a further range of internet information sources. Learners must use this
resource with care, justifying the use of information gathered.
Plagiarism and Collusion
Any act of
plagiarism and collusion will be seriously dealt with according to the regulations. In this context the
definition and scope of plagiarism are presented below:
"Using the work of others without acknowledging
source of information or inspiration. Even if the words are changed or sentences are put in different order,
the result is still plagiarism". (Cortell 2003)
Collusion describes as the submission of work produced
in collaboration for an assignment based on the assessment of individual work. When one person shares his/her
work with others who submit part or all of it as their own work.
avoiding plagiarism
There are a few simple
steps that you can take to make sure that your work does not contain any plagiarised material:
1) Give
yourself plenty of time.
An easy way to plagiarise material accidentally is to rush a task because you have
started it the day before the deadline. The more time you take to complete an assignment, the less risk you
face of not realising that an argument is very similar to someone else's work.
2) Start as you mean to
go on.
Do not directly cut and paste any material that you find on websites or in journals/e-books into your
assignments. Make sure that you keep any collections of notes or sources material separate from your main
assignment, just in case you get confused at a later date.
3) Be selective in your choice of source
material.
Make sure you are carefully only to select source material that is relevant to your assignments. Be
particularly careful of sources that you do not fully understand, as these can leave you more susceptible to
paraphrasing or quoting material without the right attribution.
4) Reference as you go.
Make sure that you
add any references and citations to your work as you go along, rather than waiting until you are ready to
submit your work before starting. Recording your sources as you go along helps you avoid a last-minute rush to
complete this task and reduces the chance of you making a mistake.
5) Check your sourcing carefully.
Go
through your assignment and ensure that you have included a reference for any direct quotes or any material
you have paraphrased. You should ensure any material that you are not confident is your own is either provided
with an appropriate citation or removed from your assignment. Remember: when in doubt, cite!
6) Make use of
the advice that is available to you.
Make sure you speak to your tutor and read the guidance that is
available for your course in your student handbook. You should be able to find useful advice and guidance on
how to write an academic paper.
Submission Via Turnitin
You are required to submit your written
assignment(s) online via Turnitin. Unless stated otherwise on the assignment brief, all your assignments
should be submitted online. You must put YOUR Student ID number) as the submission title (details given in
the assignment brief). You will be enrolled automatically for your Turnitin class.
Scheme of Work &
Session Plan
Teaching week Topic
Week 1 Class overview; Review of Learning Outcomes and class schedule;
Review Referencing; Review SOW. Explain Portfolio
Understanding the Learning Outcomes; distribution of
SOW
Week 2 1.1 compare personal values and principles with the principles of support for working in health
and social care
Week 3 1.2 assess how personal culture and experience influence own role in supporting users
of services and others in health and social care settings
Week 4 1.3 discuss how new developments and changes
to personal values can impact on work in health and social care.
Week 5 2.1 assess current skills ability and
learning style. 2.2 produce a holistic development plan with short, medium and long-term goals.
Week 6 3.1
explain the nature of different professional relationships in health and social care contexts. 3.2 evaluate
personal effectiveness in promoting and supporting the rights of the individual.
Week 7 3.3 discuss ways to
resolve issues encountered in professional relationships.
Week 8 4.1 evaluate the effectiveness of
personal contributions when working with others in health and social care practice
4.2 explain how the limits
of own work role impacts on work with others
Week 9 4.3 Analyse own role in minimising barriers to effective
teamwork in health and social care practice
4.4 discuss how to improve personal contributions to the
collective effectiveness of a team.
Week 10
2.3-monitor progress against the plan according to the
requirement of a health and social care practitioner, revising the plan as required.
2.4 evaluate the
effectiveness of the development plan to own development as health and social care practitioner.
Week 11

All learners will need to submit their online PPD Portfolio with clear table of contents
Week 12 Submission
Date
Background Rules:
• The students need to swipe in and swipe out their cards inside the
class
• Switch off your mobile phone
• Be on time (you may not be able to enter the session if you are
late).
• There will be late attendance after first 15 minutes and there will be no attendance at quarter
past NINE and quarter past ONE in the session respectively.

 
james marks
London
Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 07:53

Pearson BTEC Level 4/5HNC/D Diploma Health and Social Care – Unit 3: Health and Safety in Health and
Social Care Workplace

March 8, 2016

** />ty-in-health-and-social-care-workplace/
Uncategorized
• Unit Description
• This Assignment is example
of our Edexcel Assignment help Service. This assignment is part of BTEC HND and HNC Health and social care
course and given in the E- Thames Graduate College.
Assignment title Health and Safety in Health and Social
Care Workplace Assignment
Learning Outcome Learning Outcome Assessment Criteria In this assessment you will
have the opportunity to present evidence that shows you are able to: Task no.
LO1 Understand how health and
safety legislation is implemented in the health and social care workplace 1.1 Review systems, policies and
procedures for communicating information on health and safety in the health and social care workplace in
accordance with legislative requirements 1
1.2 Assess the responsibilities in a specific health and social
care workplace for the management of health and safety in relation to organisational structures 1

1.3 Analyse health and safety priorities appropriate for a specific health and social care workplace 1
LO2
Understand the ways in which health and safety requirements impact on customers and the work of practitioners
in the health and social care workplace 2.1 Analyse how information from risk assessments informs care
planning for individuals and organisational decision making about policies and procedures 2
2.2 Analyse the
impact of one aspect of health and safety policy on health and social care practice and its
customers 2
2.3 Discuss how dilemmas encountered in relation to implementing systems and policies for
health, safety and security may be addressed 2
2.4 Analyse the effect of non-compliance with health and
safety legislation in a health and social care workplace 2
LO3 Understand the monitoring and review of
health and safety in the health and social care workplace 3.1 explain how health and safety policies and
practices are monitored and reviewed 3
3.2 analyse the effectiveness of health and safety policies and
practices in the workplace in promoting a positive, healthy and safe culture 3
3.3 evaluate own
contributions to placing the health and safety needs of individuals at the centre of practice. 3
Purpose of
this assignmentLearners will understand that health and safety is an essential consideration for all
practitioners in health and social care and this unit will enable learners to develop an understanding of the
importance of continually monitoring the implementation of health and safety legislation and policies within
any health and social care setting.
Learners will gain a clear understanding of the implications of relevant
legislation for their own role and the implementation of policies and systems in their own workplace. The
importance of record keeping, monitoring and review health and safety policies and procedures will also be
considered.
Elements of this unit should be contextualised, where possible, to an appropriate setting
relevant to learners' workplace in health and social care.
Requirements of this assignment

HND
Assignment help
The assignment consists of 3 tasks. The first task requires individual learner to prepare a
booklet, the second task requires every learner to carry out a risk assessment and task 3 is a reflective
practice.
Assessment criteria 2.3 will be assessed in Unit 2 Assignment brief.
Task 1 Health and Safety
LegislationYou are to compile an induction booklet for new staff joining your health or care setting. The size
of the booklet should be no more than 10 pages long.
Specific requirements for the booklet must include:
o A
Front Cover
o Contents Page
o Introduction :
o An review of :
a) systems and
b) Policies and procedures
for communicating information on health, safety and security to staff, clients and visitors of the agency.
(Diagrams and flowcharts can be used here) (1.1, M3)
Responsibilities:
a) Examine the responsibilities in
your agency for the management of health and safety in relation to organizational structures supported by
appropriate examples (1.2, D2)
An analysis of : the health, safety and security priorities of your agency
(1.3)
Task 2 Risk AssessmentThis task requires you to carry out a risk assessment in your placement using one
of the approaches evaluated in Task
1. Include the full risk assessment as part of the information you
include in your submission. Your risk analysis (not including the risk assessment report) should
contain:
o Clear and relevant analysis of how information from your risk assessment can inform the planning
for the care of individuals and how an organisation might undertake organisational policies decision making
supported by innovative examples should be apparent in your work (2.1, M2)
o An analysis of the impact of one
aspect of your health and safety policy on your own practice with service users and the care team.
(2.2)
o Your personal analysis on the effects of noncompliance experience in relation to health and safety
legislation in the workplace. (2.4)
o You must be able to demonstrate that you have applied innovative and
creative thought to your work (D3)
An Appendix containing your actual risk assessment report.
Get the
Communication in Health and Social Care Organizations Assignment Help
Task 3 Monitoring and ReviewingThis
task requires you to show clear understanding of the implications of relevant legislation for your own role
and the implementation of policies and systems in your own workplace. You may wish to submit evidence from
reflective accounts and witness testimonies from your care setting. Your submission of not more than 1000
words should include:
o An explanation about how the health and safety policies and practices are monitored
and reviewed at your organisation. (3.1, M2, D2)
o An analysis of the effectiveness of health and safety
policies and practices in the workplace in promoting a positive health and safety culture. (3.2)
o An
evaluation of your own contributions to placing the needs of individuals at the centre in relation to health,
safety and security. (3.3, M1, D1)
• Need help?
Get Complete Solution From Best BECH HND & HNC
Assignment Experts.
• Unit Solution – Communication in Health and Social Care Organizations
Assignment
• LO 3 understand the monitoring and review of health and safety in the health and social care
workplace
3.1 Explain how health and safety policies and practices are monitored and reviewed
It is very
important to monitor and review the policies and practices of Health and Safety workplace so that the quality
of the organisation can be enhanced or it can be at par with the continuous change in the health and social
care sector. Without monitoring the policies, it is not possible to determine that the policies are meeting
the set standards or not. For the guaranteed quality in the policies, monitoring and review of the policies is
essential. The policies which are formed and implemented in the activities of the organisation are checked and
reviewed to check the improvement or any drawbacks in the system. The task is not completed when the policies
are made and implemented but it is also very important to monitor and review them and it is important for many
reasons.
There are two methods by which the health and safety policies can be reviewed:
Monitoring by
Proactive method: proactive approach means taking action before the actual event. It includes checking the
standards which are set already and inspecting and checking them regularly. Monitoring by Reactive method:
Reactive approach means reacting after the event takes place. It means that when the accident takes place, the
action is taken after that.
The regular monitoring and review involves preparation of the checklist of all
the activities of the organisation and then identifying the risks which can take place and then some actions
are taken to save the organisation from the risks which can occur.
An efficient monitoring and reviewing
improves the efficiency of the health and social workplace.
During the process of assessment of risks, the
data is collected and it is checked and reviewd to make sure that there are no problems. So, the first step is
the collection of data and the second step is reviewing the data which is collected and the positive and
negative points are noted down for future purpose. It is the basis for any future implementation of policies
or for any change. Monitoring and review should be done on a regular basis. It is seen that what goals and
objectives are met and which are about to met and also the future goals, objectives and strategies are
discussed.
Whole data is monitored and reviewed and then the results or outcome of the data is informed to
all the stakeholders. The whole team is motivated to work when they are informed properly about all the
activities of an organisation. Positive results will motivate the team to achieve more than they achieved at
present and the negative outcomes will give them a power to improve their results with Excellency. So, the
communication of the information is very essential for the effective contribution of the workers and staff.


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james marks
London
Erstellt am Sonntag,  9. Oktober 2016 07:09
UNIT 2: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE
Unit 2: Principles of Health and Social
Care
Practice
Unit code: Y/601/1566
QCF level: 5
Credit value: 15

• Aim
The aim of this
unit is to develop understanding of the values, theories and policies underpinning health and social care
practice and the mechanisms that exist to promote good practice.
• Unit abstract
This unit develops
understanding of the values and principles that underpin the practice of all those who work in health and
social care. Learners will consider theories and policies that underpin health and social care practice and
explore formal and informal mechanisms required to promote good practice by individuals in the workforce,
including strategies that can influence the performance of others.
• Learning outcomes
On successful
completion of this unit a learner will:
• Understand how principles of support are implemented in health
and social care practice
• Understand the impact of policy, legislation, regulation, codes of practice and
standards on organisation policy and practice
• Understand the theories that underpin health and social
care practice
• Be able to contribute to the development and implementation of health and social care
organisational policy.

UNIT 2: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE
Unit content
• Understand
how principles of support are implemented in health and social care practice
Principles of support:
respecting individuality, rights, choice, privacy, independence, dignity, respect and partnership; equal
opportunities; respecting diversity, different cultures and values; providing care, support and attention, eg
for individuals, family, friends, carers, groups and communities
Confidentiality: importance of, limits of,
policies about sharing information
Person-centred approach: supporting preferences, wishes and needs;
supporting privacy and dignity; supporting others to make informed choices about the services they
receive
Protection from risk of harm: assessing risk to self and others; right of individuals to take risks;
informing relevant people about identified risks
• Understand the impact of policy, legislation,
regulation, codes of practice and standards on organisation policy and practice
Current policy: as relevant
eg Every Child Matters, Rights to Action, Quality Protects, Children First; current policy guidance eg
Procurement, working together to safeguard children: a guide to inter-agency working to safeguard and promote
the welfare of children, Valuing People, Fulfilling the Promises
Current legislation: as relevant eg the Care
Standards Act, 2000
Current regulations: as relevant eg Care Homes Regulations, 2001, The Care Homes (Wales)
Regulations 2002
Current codes of practice: as relevant eg Code of Practice for Social Care Workers and Code
of Practice for Employers of Social Care Workers, The Code: standards of conduct, performance and ethics for
nurses and midwives
Impact of initiatives: changes to practice, development needs
• Understand the
theories that underpin health and social care practice
Explanations for the characteristics and circumstances
of individuals: theories of human growth and development; managing loss and change; managing stress and
behaviour
Social processes: leading to marginalisation, isolation and exclusion eg poverty, unemployment,
poor health, disablement, lack of education and other sources of disadvantage; their impact on the demand for
health and social care services
Nature of health and social care services in a diverse society: concepts eg
prejudice, inter-personal, institutional and structural discrimination, empowerment and anti-discriminatory
practices
Inter-professional working: significance of partnership working eg social care, education, housing,
health, income maintenance and criminal justice services

UNIT 2: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
PRACTICE
• Be able to contribute to the development and implementation of health and social care
organisational policy
Considerations: supervision, roles and accountability; quality assurance systems;
maintaining and upgrading knowledge and skills; support networks and professional registration; working with
the regulators

UNIT 2: PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE PRACTICE
Learning outcomes and assessment
criteria
Learning outcomes Assessment criteria for pass
On successful completion of The learner can:

this unit a learner will:

LO1 Understand how principles 1.1 explain how principles
of support are applied to ensure
of support are implemented that individuals are cared for in health
and social care
in health and social care practice
practice 1.2 outline the procedure for
protecting clients, patients,

and colleagues from harm
1.3 analyse the benefit
of following a person-centred
approach with users of health and social care services

1.4 explain ethical dilemmas and conflict that may arise
when providing care, support and
protection to users of
health and social care services

LO2 Understand the impact
of 2.1 explain the implementation of policies, legislation,
policy, legislation, regulation,
regulations and codes of practice that are relevant to
codes of practice and own work in health and
social care
standards on organisation 2.2 explain how local policies and procedures can be
policy
and practice
developed in accordance with national and policy


requirements
2.3 evaluate the impact of policy, legislation, regulation, and
codes of
practice on organisational policy and practice

LO3 Understand the theories that 3.1 explain
the theories that underpin health and social care
underpin health and social practice
care
practice 3.2 analyse how social processes impact on users of health

and social care
services
3.3 evaluate the effectiveness of inter-professional working

LO4 Be able to
contribute to the 4.1 explain own role, responsibilities, accountabilities and
development and
duties in the context of working with those within and
implementation of health outside the health
and social care workplace
and social care 4.2 evaluate own contribution to the development and

organisational policy.
implementation of health and social care organisational


policy
4.3 make recommendations to develop own contributions
to meeting good
practice requirements.


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Jacob Chiu
Baltimore
Erstellt am Samstag,  8. Oktober 2016 19:08
I mentioned last week, when your book offers "if/reverses," it is possible to play those rather
than parlays.
 
Gwyneth Amigon
Brookline
Erstellt am Samstag,  8. Oktober 2016 19:02
Should you be injured inside an accident, you in all probability possess a lots of questions.
 
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Los Angeles
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Birmingham
Erstellt am Freitag,  7. Oktober 2016 09:17
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Mission
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Geometric pool designs are often called Classic Designs, Contemporary Designs, Roman pools, Grecian pools,
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Cory Northan
Bastrop
Erstellt am Freitag,  7. Oktober 2016 01:52
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Marquette
Erstellt am Freitag,  7. Oktober 2016 00:54
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Tucson
Erstellt am Freitag,  7. Oktober 2016 00:43
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Norfolk
Erstellt am Freitag,  7. Oktober 2016 00:42
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Rochester
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Rochester
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Philadelphia
Erstellt am Donnerstag,  6. Oktober 2016 10:01
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